WNP515 - Clement Pubs Part 1
Nicole: [00:00:00] It's Outside Lands San Francisco, podcast of Western Neighborhoods Project. Your weekly dose of friendly neighborhood history.
And hello, Outside Landers. I, of course, am your host, Nicole Meldahl.
Arnold: And I am your co-host, Arnold Woods.
Nicole: And as you know, we're always up to something here at WNP. Because I don't know how to say no to a cool project involving good people. Isn't that right, Arnold?
Arnold: That is correct.
Nicole: Which is how I ended up on a committee of Clement Street merchants in charge of selecting an artist to design new banners advertising the inner Clement area some months back. And I won't lie to you, friends, I was a little out of my element. There were lots of artsy folks who clearly have a background in design and merchandising and running successful businesses. And I [00:01:00] was just a lowly historian, along for the ride. And then, I got an idea. We would do what we do best, which is bring the history to the banner unveiling at Art Walk in August.
Arnold: So, we decided to create QR-coded history style posters, which used photos from the OpenSFHistory archive, that would be put up in local businesses and lead people back to our website, where we provided a history of the building. Kind of like the business histories we've done on the podcast, but it was an unfunded project. So, we wanted to be mindful of how much time we were investing in it for no money. And we had to keep our costs down as a result.
Nicole: Unlike the podcast, which brings in tons of cash. But it's, so this is obviously something we've never really done before. Though we had a somewhat similar West Portal history project where we put photos in local businesses. That was like 20 years ago. QR codes are not around [00:02:00] then. But you're right. This is, there is a history of this in the organization, Arnold. And, as always, we were building the ship as we sailed it, because, god forbid, we plan anything or have time to do anything on a realistic timeline. Luckily, our amazing USF volunteer, Drew Moss, was helping us pull this together, and he picked 10 photos that we could install at sort of regular intervals along the street, so folks could take a leisurely, self-guided history walk through the neighborhood. And he chose these history stops based on the strength of the photos we had available in, to us in the OpenSFHistory archive, but also, you know, like research we already had on hand. But then when we announced the 10 locations to local merchants, people were super excited about the project and some people were also really bummed if they hadn't been selected in the first round. Which was a bummer for us.
Arnold: And we didn't want people to feel left out. That's not the point of community [00:03:00] history. So, we went back to the drawing board, refining the project further. Ultimately, we installed four posters, four posters designed by John Lindsey of the Great Highway Gallery, using expanded research from the Clement Street Pub Crawl, which was led by Nicole and John Martini back in April of this year. Those posters went up in four bars. They were the Plough & Stars, the Bitter End, the 540 Rogues, and Richmond Republic. And they celebrate the, they're there to celebrate the installation of artist Risa Culberton's gorgeous new Clement Street banners which were spearheaded by the Clement Street Merchants Association and funded by Avenue Greenlight.
Nicole: That's artist Risa Culbertson. That's not Arnold's fault. I put in a typo. So, not his fault. My poor typing skills. But Risa, I see you. You're amazing. We're going to get your name right. And, you know, this is a really long way of saying, this episode, we're [00:04:00] taking you to two Clement Street bars, the first and second of our history stops, which should still be up in those bars if nobody has pulled them down yet. And also, the one in, sometimes they're a little hard to find because they've been put in not totally obvious areas in the bar. But nonetheless, we're going to start with, drum roll please, [drum roll tapped out on table] one of our absolute favorites, Plough and Stars.
Arnold: So, the evolving history of the building at 116 Clements Street speaks to the successive waves of immigration that have created the vibrant cosmopolitan community that we have today in the Richmond District. Constructed in 1905, the building was home to a French laundry for most of its history, a reflection of the robust French population that also built French Hospital on nearby Geary. And you can listen to episode 405 of our Outside Lands San Francisco podcast to learn more [00:05:00] about French Hospital.
Nicole: Yeah, Clement French Laundry was owned and operated by Calixte Lapuyade in 1951, but it was originally opened by Frank Mirandette, who lived next door with his family at 114 Clement Street. Born to a Spanish mother and French father, Frank immigrated to America from France in 1890 and originally settled in Oakland. He married a fellow French immigrant, Francois Gouber, in 1895, and the couple moved to Los Gatos where they opened the Los Gatos French Laundry.
Arnold: As their family grew, the Mirandettes moved to San Francisco, where Frank began working at a laundry located at 2449 Mission Street. He eventually became a partner in that business by 1907, and it was renamed Mirandette & Pratt. He opened the French Laundry on Clement around 1910 and called it Mirandette & Lapuyade when he took on a partner, Calixte Lapuyaade, in 1912. I'm sure I've mispronounced that [00:06:00] name.
Nicole: I was gonna say, I look forward to everybody telling us we got this wrong again. Anywhosit. The Mirandette family moved to Redwood City in 1917 and Lapuyade became the sole proprietor of the business, renaming it Clement French Laundry. The Lapuyades ran the business through the 1940s until they too relocated to Redwood City. And it's unclear who owned the business in the 1950s, but by 1960, it transferred to the Baylacq family who had been operating laundries in San Francisco since 1906, at least according to advertisements placed in local papers in the 1960s.
Arnold: Yeah, Francois “Frank” Baylacq was also a native of France who came here in 1900. And we believe he married a member of the extended Lapuyade family, Marie, in 1913. Frank ran an eponymous French laundry on O'Farrell Street and was joined by his two sons. George and Albert. The family lived in the Sunset District on 30th Avenue, where Frank retired in the early 1970s. [00:07:00] Members of the extended Baylacq family lived in the Richmond District on 6th Avenue, 16th Avenue, and 34th Avenue. Frank's sons managed Baylacq French Laundry until 1974 when Sonny and Doris Woo applied for a permit to operate the wash laundry there.
Nicole: And the Plough & Stars you see today opened its doors on Friday, April 30th, 1975. The Irish pub and live music venue was operated by Bob Heaney, original owner of the Starry Plough in Berkeley, one of my favorite places to see music when I go across the bridge. And he ran that until 1981, when current owner Sean Heaney took over the business, at least our Star & Plough or Plough & Stars. Sean came to San Francisco as part of a wave of immigrants leaving Ireland due to a severe economic recession in the 1980s, and the bar continues to be a gathering place for Irish immigrants who come here for community, networking, and of course, familiar music.
Arnold: [00:08:00] Sean's love of traditional Irish music has made the Plough & Stars a destination for musicians and enthusiasts alike. You can catch a wide variety of performances here, from bluegrass to DJ sets. But some of the best nights are due to the bar's seisuns, informal gatherings of musicians who play traditional music as a group. These sessions are generally led by two people, but anyone is welcome to join. Keep an eye on the Plough's calendar to catch an upcoming program.
Nicole: Yeah, this is a true neighborhood joint, you know, Sean and his wife Lisa, a local elementary school teacher, have lived in the Richmond District for over 30 years. Now their two children, Elena and Eoin, are also part of the family business. Booking musicians, overseeing major events at the Plough, like our pub crawl that ran through there in April. You know, major events and managing the bar. And you know what? When you order a pint of Guinness, be sure to ask Eoin if Van Morrison has ever graced the Plough & Stars [00:09:00] with his presence. Cause you're gonna like the answer.
Arnold: I suspect he did.
Nicole: Got to ask Eoin. You got to go to the Plough, order a beer and ask Eoin.
Arnold: And in fact, we also had a birthday party there some years ago as well.
Nicole: I also drink there a lot. And so does a one Mr. Woody Labounty, in case that's insider knowledge that is useful to any of you.
Arnold: So, the bar was officially designated a San Francisco legacy business in 2018. In the application for legacy business status, one of our OpenSFHistory photos of the building was featured.
Nicole: Yeah. We love when we see our own stuff pop up in other things, because we're history narcissists. But also, we love this bar so much. Like this bar, every time I go to this bar, it kind of feels like going home. So, it sort of feels like the Irish Cheers of the Richmond district.
Arnold: I don't know how much they would appreciate that description.
Nicole: Actually, but anyways. [00:10:00] Sorry, that's offensive to anybody who watched Cheers or to the Plough & Stars. But also, we are not affiliated with Cheers or any anybody on Cheers or the Plough & Stars. Anyways, our next stop is the Bitter End at 441 Clement Street. Ironically, don't have a lot of information about this bar, other than it did change ownership recently, but has still retained its dive-y charm. But boy, oh boy, do we know a lot of things about the building. Constructed in 1923, the building was briefly home to the Superior Upholstery Company, operated by Joseph Goldberg and his wife, Ida. You know, really thrilling history that we're getting into.
Arnold: William Eichner opened an electronics and radio store at this location in 1926 and lived in the neighborhood with his wife Hedwig. By 1928, the business was called Park Presidio Radio Electric Company, [00:11:00] and a 1929 holiday advertisement touted them as the, quote, “Richmond District’s Leading Radio Store.” End quote.
Nicole: And that's because the whole neighborhood was sort of rebranding, right? Away from the Richmond and they tried to rename it Park Presidio. They actually did rename it Park Presidio for a really long time, but no one actually called it that.
Arnold: Except apparently this radio store.
Nicole: And others, like there were some name changes, but like, colloquially, people would just be like, let's go to the Richmond. So, the city actually, you put it back in, like the 2000s. Anyways, now we're off on a tangent. Please continue Arnold.
Arnold: And that was also a discussion in a long-ago podcast.
Nicole: Oh my gosh. We've probably told you about that several times now. So my apologies, I'm getting old Arnold. I can't remember what we recorded on the old broadcasts.
Arnold: Not as old as I am. Anyways, by September 1933, the business was liquidated at a bankruptcy sale. The storefront may have been empty for a few years until 441 Clement, [00:12:00] as well as 443 Clement next door, were taken over by Milton K. and Anne E. Harris in the late 1930s.
Nicole: And here we go. Now we're getting into some history I'm into. The husband and wife team imported and distributed wine, liquors, and other goods, as did other members of Milton's family. Originally from Warsaw, Poland, Milton came to the United States in the 1890s and began working for M. Harris & Company, an import and distribution outfit operated by his brother, Morris. That company also sold wines, liquors, but teas, coffee, etc. on Fillmore Street. And Milton was working there when he married Anne Ellen Van Garick, an immigrant from London, England, in January 1917.
Arnold: In 1920, Milton started the Universal Candy Company on Polk Street with Charles Weiner, although no record of the company was found after that date. The Harris's seemed to have weathered the 1920s well. Anne was pictured in the San Francisco Examiner with a brand [00:13:00] new car in 1928. And she opened her own bottler supply shop at 443 Clements Street in 1929. The couple lived nearby, first at 5224 Geary, and later at 4005 California Street. In 1933, Milton went into business with an outer Clement Street resident named Hyman Tragan, forming the Western Liquor Import Company.
Nicole: You guys probably wonder why we're like, here's all this obscure information on where people lived and where people were from. We do this, you know, for a reason. We like to show you that like people came here from other places. They lived in the neighborhood. They opened businesses in the neighborhood. This is, this is where like the vibrant culture of the West side comes from. All these people calling this place home and opening businesses that people in the neighborhood use. So, in case you're wondering why the heck did they always do this on this podcast. There is a greater vision. Anywhosit. Milton helped form the San Francisco Retail Liquor Dealers [00:14:00] Association in 1934 to combat illegal bootlegging, a byproduct of recently ended Prohibition. And he was in business under his own name as the Milton Distributing Company operating out of 441 Clement Street in 1937, next to his wife's store. And they held on to both sites through the 1940s until sadly Milton died in June 1949 at Mount Zion hospital, where his brother Franklin worked as a doctor. And he died there after a prolonged illness. And his obituary in the San Francisco Examiner referred to Milton as a, and I quote, “Richmond district business leader.”
Arnold: Meanwhile, Anne continued to run A. E. Harris wine and liquor, which alternated addresses between 441 and 443 Clement. Wine press and bottling supplies went up for sale, quote, “very cheap,” at 441 Clement the same month Milton died. By 1955, A. E. Harris was managed by Leo D. Tomsky, who was married to Milton's sister, Stella. [00:15:00] Anne died in February 1962, Leo in March 1963. But A. E. Harris continued on without them and was an anchor business at 443 Clement Street until its sale in 1984.
Nicole: And we move out of the liquor business era and into the Haig's delicacies era. In 1964, Haig's opened in a new larger location at 441 Clement, serving its beloved hummus and so much more here until 1973, when the business moved to 642 Clement. When, and you can learn more on an upcoming podcast where we get into Haig’s and its location further down the street in what we now know is the Richmond Republic. So, stay tuned for that. Not next week, but later. Anyhow, when Haig’s moved up the street, Jack Anderson moved in and converted 441 Clement into the Open Theater. Now, Jack is a legend, still [00:16:00] around, a Richmond District native who lived on 7th Avenue and whose family owned and operated the Anderson Sisters School of Dance on 6th Avenue.
Arnold: He was a graduate of Lowell High School, a radio talk show host, and an involved citizen of San Francisco. He worked with Belva Cottier's Native American Health Center on Julian Street. In an interview with the Santa Cruz Sentinel in 1974, Jack called the Richmond District, quote, “one of the last cosmopolitan neighborhoods in San Francisco.” End quote.
Nicole: And he took out a 10-year lease on the building with a goal to, and I quote, “create a theater that will involve everyone from ethnic groups to children to sophisticated theater goers.” End quote. The theater was to use every possible square foot in its productions, including the street, Jack's house on 7th Avenue, where costumes were made, the balcony, and the lobby. And this immersive type of theater was part of the Open Theater movement, which began in New York and spread across the country. [00:17:00] An adaptation opened in Berkeley, where they staged happenings in good Deadhead, hippie fashion.
Arnold: Open Theatre's first production in January 1974 was Arthur Kopit's play, Indians. And Jack brought it, brought in director Lee Sankowich to stage the play. Lee was well known at the time for staging successful productions of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest in New York, San Francisco, Boston, and Israel. He later went on to be the artistic director of the Marin Theatre Company for 16 years.
Nicole: Yeah, named one of the best 10 plays in New York, Indians was conceived as a statement on the Vietnam War, but was allegorically placed in the Wild West during the Massacre at Wounded Knee. It was first staged by the Royal Shakespeare Company in London because Kopit featured, or feared adverse reaction from the U.S. government. And like, you know, this is sort of an esoteric side note, but like, this is pretty heavy hitting, [00:18:00] subversive content to be produced in a small open theater in the Richmond district. So, way to go, Jack.
Arnold: In fact, Jack said, quote, “the action will happen all around the audience, because the play is allegorical and operates on four levels, vaudeville, circus, as a serious statement done with humor, and at the same time says something politically important in an aesthetical way.” End quote. Production included 37 cast members, 50 total if you include the backstage, most of whom starred as Indians that frequently scaled the balconies on four rope ladders.
Nicole: That's a lot of people in a production.
Arnold: In a small place.
Nicole: In a small place. By 1975, the theater was referred to as the Clement Cultural Center by local newspapers and was staging a variety of productions, including a one woman show titled Isadora Duncan, A Unique Recital in 1975, and Moonchildren in 1976. And moving into the [00:19:00] ‘80s, the business was known as the Open Theater and Cafe, but closed after Jack's lease expired. And you can learn more about Jack Ander, Jack and the Anderson Sisters School of Dance in podcast episode number 348.
Arnold: A 1985 permit shows that the second staircase and a fireplace were installed, perhaps making the building more accessible and inviting to a restaurant crowd. Taiwanese Restaurant opened for business the next year, serving the neighborhood a delicious dim sum lunch, according to a Richmond Review assessment at the time.
Nicole: Yeah, and this is, this, in one building you're seeing, like, the movement of the neighborhood over time. Where now, I mean, I mostly go to the Richmond to eat delicious dim sum. So, that's what I always think about it for. But I also go for Irish bars, like the Bitter End. So, everybody's happy.
Arnold: Yeah, we've had French history here. Polish history here. Taiwanese history.
Arnold: We had it all.
Nicole: Cosmopolitan. And by the 1990s, the Bitter End was a fixture in the neighborhood. And fun [00:20:00] fact, or maybe not a fun fact, but a fact you're going to get either way, it was a favorite place for me to bring first dates throughout my twenties, because I could get a veggie burger and a solid beer and the bartender would evil eye all my dates that I brought in there. So, they knew they had to be on their best behavior. It was awesome. It's everything a single gal needs.
Arnold: Now this podcast has been all over the place, but we are down to, Say What Now?
Nicole: So, since this is a beer-fueled podcast, I have something beer focused to share with y'all. Now, as you may or may not know, we're buddies with the folks who own and run Fort Point Beer Company. Hi friends. And we've been doing super fun trivia nights with them all over town. And to be honest, I just love the way they approach life. You know what I mean? It feels more like a community group than a commercial enterprise, because they're always coming up with new and fun things that get folks out into the neighborhood, like a new website they just launched, [00:21:00] which is the answer to the burning question, is it hot in San Francisco today?
Arnold: Yeah, this site is awesome. We don't get many true summer days in San Francisco, but this project is Fort Point’s way of helping you make the most of them. It uses real time weather data from local microclimate app, Mr. Chilly, to tell you if it's hot in San Francisco. And when it is, you get 25% off our personal favorite sunny day beverage. KSA Kolsch, with free one-hour delivery. And you can visit is it hot today, hot in SF today, I should say that completely over again. You should visit www.isithotinsftoday.com to get in on this action.
Nicole: I mean, can you believe free one-hour delivery? Who else is giving, and it's just beer that comes at you on a hot warm day in San Francisco? I'm here for it.
Arnold: And if you haven't, didn't figure out the pod, the website address from my [00:22:00] description of it there, be assured that it will be correct in the transcript for this podcast.
Nicole: You can also you can also ask us to repeat it or send you the link by sending us, listener mail. So Arnold, first of all, how does one send you listener mail to ask for this link that we didn't quite say properly?
Arnold: Well, you just send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org or podcasts, with an S, @outsidelands.org, because we figured out we should have them both in case people make mistakes.
Nicole: Yeah, we like to, we like to prepare for all contingencies here at WNP.
Arnold: You can also take advantage of our social media presence on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook to post podcast comments there, because we will usually post the podcast on those platforms.
Nicole: I'm pretty bad at it with Instagram, to be honest. People are always like, you have a podcast? I'm like, oh yeah, I don't really [00:23:00] tell you about that, do I?
Arnold: Facebook is probably the safest place to find it every week. Usually, every Monday we're posting the podcast there.
Nicole: So, I think Drew Moss who runs our Twitter accounts now is pretty on top of it. I'm the only schlub of the organization who can't do much beyond posting old photos and being like, this photo was taken on today, but a really long time ago. Hope you enjoy this today photo or not today photo. Anyways, okay, listener mail. In response to last week's podcast about Le Petit Trianon, aka, the Koshland House, active member and sometime podcast guest, David Friedlander said, and I quote, “history is just gossip for nerds. That's a great line. Plus Nicole said anywhosit three times. Oy vey. Fun times.”
Arnold: I think there's only been two anywhosits in this podcast.
Nicole: I don't want to say I coined that term, but I might use it the most on a, on a weekly podcast.
Arnold: Pretty sure you [00:24:00] own that record.
Nicole: It’s better than clickety, clickety, clack. I really am not great at taglines. But anyways, thanks, David. David literally emailed that comment within a few hours of the podcast being posted to our website. He's also in Tennessee. He's not nearby. But that's how anxious our history community is to hear each episode. And as we mentioned, David is a long time WNP member, so he gets all the benefits of…
Arnold: Becoming a member of the Western Neighborhoods Project. All you do is you clickety, clickety, clack the big orange button at the top of every page on our websites, opensfhistory.org and outsidelands.org, and you get these benefits. You get the quarterly membership magazine. You get discounts on events. You get other exclusive perks. And you get the overwhelming satisfaction of supporting all the good work we do and make available for free, which, you know, of course [00:25:00] includes this podcast. It's available on a variety of platforms that you don't have to pay for.
Nicole: Yeah. Not Stitcher anymore. Cause I hear that went under. All the ones that still exist though. We're on them.
Arnold: You also get the OpenSFHistory program, which has over 54,000 old historic images on it. Your membership, help us keep scanning and ongoing interpretation of those. We also have the Cliff House Collection, some of which is up here on the wall at our office, which you probably need an appointment to get in and see.
Arnold: But hopefully we'll have some days in the future when you can come in and just drop by to see it. But that takes care and exhibition. We've got some pieces that are in storage right now. We have some pieces that are being restored right now. And we're hoping to, in the future, feature it in other places, much like we did at The Museum at The Cliff last year.
Nicole: Yeah. Do you want to host the Cliff House Collection? We are open to offers. Absolutely. Which is a great segue [00:26:00] into announcements. So, what is WNP working on right now? We actually get asked this question a lot. Cause we're not just an events organization. Although it seems like it cause we're doing five events a month. You all, it's insane. And it's boring to say, but we're fundraising, right? Like I'm always hustling to find money for this organization. We’re also doing community collaborations. I will almost always take a meeting with folks who say, “hey, let's talk about doing something cool in the neighborhood.” And a lot of other administrative work, like the insane amount of emails that I get. And we just told you about the benefits of supporting all the work we do just by joining us as a member. And that support is also helping us rebrand in anticipation of our 25th anniversary next year. We're designing a brand-new logo. We're building out a new website. And automating a lot of our manual processes by like research and identifying, [00:27:00] switching over to out of box software services. And we have so many volunteers helping us with this to achieve what would normally be cost prohibitive. So, we're very grateful. This takes a lot of our time. So, if you're wondering why the office isn't always open, it's so we can focus on doing this behind-the-scenes work.
Arnold: It’s also why we're, at the last minute, figuring out what we're going to do in the podcast each week. There's so much else going on.
Nicole: What are you talking about? This is a well-planned weekly happening Arnold.
Arnold: But speaking of fundraising, did you know you could hire Nicole and Chelsea to work on things for, or with you?
Arnold: You know, Nicole was hired by Johns Hopkins University to assist with a student seminar in July. And now she's working with the USF Museum Studies Department as well, supervising a student capstone project about monuments. And taking a history and theory class on a field trip to the Haas-Lilienthal House, as we rethink how [00:28:00] to activate historic structures. So, if you need a business history done, content and copy editing, or a fun lecture at your next event, we can help you with that. So, shoot us an email and we can talk over all the details.
Nicole: To be clear, we can help you with that for money. For money. And, you know, I'm pulling myself out of the fog of my Labor Day birthday extravaganza to put the finishing touches on two new exhibitions that will debut at our Balboa office soon. Time Frame, our first installation of a series I'm calling Simple Devotion is going up on the walls tomorrow, the day after I record this podcast. This is our first OpenSFHistory gallery rotation that is more conceptual in nature and explores Ansel Adams history in the West Side through prose poetry written by me and placed in conversation with new work from photographer Christine Huhn. I’m so nervous about this, because if you all hate it, [00:29:00] I'm going to cry myself to sleep. But I'm very excited too, and I know we've been promising this for months, but it's been kind of a wild ride this year with some unexpected stuff. So anyways, it's happening. We're very excited about it.
Arnold: And as we've mentioned in prior podcasts, Lindsey Hanson and Gary Parks have also been working very hard on a new window exhibition about the Alexandria Theater, which is unfortunately delayed one week due to a delivery delay and circumstances beyond our control. But it's happening soon and is the first in a series of happenings, all around the Alexandria, alongside groups like San Francisco Neon, San Francisco Heritage, and the San Francisco Neighborhood Theater Foundation. All of which is to celebrate the Alexandria’s 100th birthday in November. So, stay tuned for more details about all that.
Nicole: Speaking of more details, Arnold, we're about ready to launch Out to Sea, our landing page for Shipwreck Week happening October 7th through 14th. [00:30:00] There will be special merchandise. There will be special content like videos and articles and podcasts. There will be a happy hour at the Riptide. There will be a marquee event at the Balboa Theater. So, keep an eye out for an email. Or keep an eye on our website for more Shipwreck Week announcements because they are coming soon folks.,
Arnold: And we have more walks and talks happening including one that will be related to Shipwreck Week. And, as always, we're including a partnership with Shaping San Francisco to celebrate their 25th anniversary. Find out all the details of that event and all of our events on our website at outsidelands.org/events. You can also sign up there for our monthly newsletter and/or join our 400 followers of WNP's Eventbrite page to be the first in the know when a new event goes live.
Nicole: Yeah, I think this might be the shortest podcast we've recorded in a long time, Arnold. Time for a drink! [00:31:00]
Arnold: But we, we didn't mention the, the 1906 earthquake in this podcast, so people don't have to take a drink.
Nicole: Not playing by those rules already. Is it Friday yet? I think it might be. Technically, it's Saturday if you're listening to this. All right, Arnold, what's our preview for next week?
Arnold: Well, there's going to be a part two of Clement History Bars, but we're going to take a pause on that next week to celebrate the 40th anniversary of one of our favorite Richmond District stops, the Bazaar Cafe.
Nicole: Until next time, I'm Nicole Meldahl.
Arnold: And I'm Arnold Woods.
Nicole: And this has been another episode of Outside Lands San Francisco. Thanks for being with us, history friends.
Ian: Outside Lands San Francisco is recorded by Ian Hadley. Content creation and media production at ihadley.com.
Nicole: To learn more about the Western Neighborhoods Project and more on San Francisco history, go to Outsidelands.org. You can also find us on social media at Facebook, which is [00:32:00] outsidelands with an S, at Twitter, which is outsidelandz with a Z, and on Instagram, which is outsidelandz, also with a Z. And check out our historic San Francisco images website at OpenSFHistory.org.